Essential Amino Acids
  • PriVaTe TIM HALL
  • Phe, Val, Thr, Trp, Ile, Met, His, Arg, Leu, Lys

Urea Cycle

  • Ordinarily, Careless Crappers, Are Also Frivolous About Urination.
  • Ornithine, Carbamoyl, Citrulline, Arginosuccinate, Aspartate, Fumarate, Arginine, Urea.

Cell division

  • Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase.
  • "People Meet And Talk."

In the Phasted State

  • Phosphorylate Phosphorylation cascade active when blood glucose low.
  • DNA expression into mature mRNA
  • Exons expressed, Introns in the trash.
  • Pyrimidines are CUT from purines.
  • Pyrimidines are Cytosine, Uracil, Thiamine and are one ring structures.
  • Purines are double ring structures.

Porphyrias: acute intermittent porphyria symptoms 5 P's:
Pain in abdomen
Psychologial abnormalities
Pink urine
Precipitated by drugs (eg barbiturates, oral contraceptives, sulpha drugs) 

BUN:creatinine elevation: causes ABCD:
Azotremia (pre-renal)
Bleeding (GI)
Catabolic status
Diet (high protein parenteral nutrition) 

G6PD: oxidant drugs inducing hemolytic anemia AAA: Antibiotic (eg: sufamethoxazole)
Antimalarial (eg: primaquine)
Antipyretics (eg: acetanilid, but not aspirin or acetaminophen)
Vitamin B3 (niacin, nicotinic acid) deficiency: pellagra
The 3 D's of pellagra: Dermatitis Diarrhea Dementia
· Note vitamin B3 is the 3 D's. 

Tangier's disease: hallmark
"Tangierene tonsils":
Hallmark is large orange tonsils.
· Important clinical note: there is no increased risk of atherosclerosis, just like eating tangerenes.
Na+/K+ pump: movement of ions and quantity
K+ and in each consist of 2 characters, so so 2 K+ are pumped in. Na+ and out each consist of 3 characters, so 3 Na+ are pumped out

Glycogen storage: Anderson's (IV) vs. Cori's (III) enzyme defect

Anderson's=Branching enzyme.
Cori's=Debranching enzyme.
· Otherwise, can't really distinguish clinically. 

Nitric oxide: amino acid precursor
When the dentist works on your teeth, you say, "AAArg! (Arginine)" before he administers Nitric Oxide (NO) to take the pain away.
· Other players necessary for NO synthesis: NO synthase, Ca++, NADPH. 

Pompe's disease: type "Police = Po + lys":
Pompe's disease is a lysosomal storage disease (alpha 1,4 glucosidase). 
Metabolic acidosis (normal anion-gap): causes
· With hyperkalemia: RAISE K+:
RTA type 4
Aldosterone or mineralocorticord deficiency
Iatrogenic: NH4Cl, HCl
"Stenosis": obstructive uropathy
Early uremia
· With hypokalemia: ReDUCE K+:
Renal TA type 1 and 2
Urine diversion into gut
Carbonate anhydrase inhibitor

Galactosaemia: enzyme deficiency

GALIPUT: Galactose 1 Phosphate Uridyl Transferase.
· There is an assay called the Galiput test for this.
Citric acid cycle compounds
"Our City Is Kept Safe And Sound From Malice":
Oxaloacetate Citrate Isocitrate alpha-Ketoglutarate Succinyl-CoA Succinate Fumarate Malate 

Folate deficiency: causes A FOLIC DROP:
Folic acid antagonists
Oral contraceptives
Low dietary intake
Infection with Giardia
Celiac sprue
Relative folate deficiency

Mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) properties
"mt DNA".
mt stands for: Maternal Transfer Mutates Tremendously (high mutation rate) 

Vitamins: which are fat soluble
"The FAT cat is in the ADEK (attic)":
Fat soluble vitamins are A,D,E,K.
Enzyme kinetics: competitive vs. non-competitive inhibition
With Kompetitive inhibition: Km increases; no change in Vmax. With Non-kompetitive inhibition: No change in Km; Vmax decreases. 

Glycogen storage: names of types I through VI
"Viagra Pills Cause A Major Hardon":
Von Gierke's
Sickle cell disease pathophysiology
SICKle cell disease is due to a Substitution of the SICKsth amino acid of the B chain.
Glucagon function
"Mr. Gluca has Gone to the cAMP to bring out some Glucose":
· Glucagon elevates glucose by cAMP mechanism.
Van den Bergh reaction (Jaundice test)
"Indirect reacting bilirubin = Unconjugated bilirubin":
Both start with vowels, so they go together:
Indirect & Unconjugated.

Hemoglobin binding curve: causes of shift to right

"CADET, face right!":
2,3-DPG (aka 2,3 BPG)

G proteins for respective receptors
"QISS & QIQ" (Kiss and Kick):
· G-proteins and their respective receptors (alphabetical order):
Q: alpha 1 I: alpha 2 S: beta 1 S: beta 2 &
Q: M1 I: M2 Q: M3 

Adrenaline mechanism
"ABC of Adrenaline":
Adrenaline--> activates
Beta receptors--> increases
Cyclic AMP

Citric acid cycle compounds

"Can I Keep Selling Sex For Money, Officer?":
Citrate Isocitrate alpha Ketogluterate Succinyl CoA Succinate Fumerate Malate Oxaloacetate 

Carbon monoxide: electron transport chain target
"CO blocks CO":
Carbon monoxide (CO) blocks Cytochrome Oxidase (CO) 

Metabolism sites
"Use both arms to HUG":
Heme synthesis Urea cycle Gluconeogenesis · These reactions occur in both cytoplasm and mitochondria. 

Na/K pump: concentrations of Na vs. K on inside/outside of cell, pump action, number of molecules moved
HIKIN': There is a HIgh K concentration INside the cell. From this can deduce that the Na/K pump pumps K into cell and Na out of cell. Alternatively: When I was learning this pump (circa 1992), a band that was "in" was Kris Kross, and a band that was "out" was "Sha Na Na Na": So pump moves K K (2 K) in and Na Na Na (3 Na) out. · Sadly, as infectious as their debut album was, Kris Kross can really no longer be classed as "in".

DNA bond strength (nucleotides)
"Crazy Glue":
Strongest bonds are between Cytosine and Guanine, strong like Crazy Glue (3 H-bonds), whereas the A=T only have 2 H-bonds. · This is relevant to DNA replication, as the weaker A=T will be the site where RNA primer makes the initial break. 

Dicarboxylic acids (alpha, omega) C2 through C10: common names
"Oh My, Such Good Apple Pie, Sweet As Sugar!":
Oxalic Malonic Succinic Glutaric Adipic Pimelic Suberic Azelaic Sebacic 

Infantile Beriberi symptoms
Restlessness Sleeplessness Breathlessness Soundlessness (aphonia) Eatlessness (anorexia) Great heartedness (dilated heart)
· Alternatively: Get 5 of 'em with BERI: Breathless/ Big hearted, Eatless, Restless, Insomnia. 

AcetylCoA and acetacetylCoA: amino acids forming them
"A Lighter Lease" (A LyTr LeIs):
A=AcetylCoA or Acetoacetyl CoA

Fasting state: branched-chain amino acids used by skeletal muscles
"Muscles LIVe fast":

Glycolysis steps
"Goodness Gracious, Father Franklin Did Go By Picking Pumpkins (to) Prepare Pies":
2-Phosphoglycerate (to)
Phosphoenolpyruvate [PEP] Pyruvate · 'Did', 'By' and 'Pies' tell you the first part of those three: di-, bi-, and py-.
· 'PrEPare' tells location of PEP in the process. 

Fabry's disease
Foam cells found in glomeruli and tubules/ Febrile episodes
Alpha galactosidase A deficiency/ Angiokeratomas
Burning pain in extremities/ BUN increased in serum/ Boys
Renal failure
YX genotype (male, X linked recessive)

B vitamin names
"The Rhythm Nearly Proved Contagious":
· In increasing order: Thiamine (B1) Riboflavin (B2) Niacin (B3) Pyridoxine (B6) Cobalamin (B12) 

Electron transport chain: Rotenone's site of action
Rotenone is a site specific inhibitor of complex one

Citric acid cycle compounds
"Oh! Can I Keep Some Succinate For Myself?":
Oxaloacetate Citrate Isocitrate Ketoglutarate Succinyl coA Succinate Fumarate Malate 

Citric acid cycle compounds
"Oh Citric Acid Is Of (course) A SiLly STupid Funny Molecule":
Oxaloacetate Citrate Aconitate Isocitrate Oxalosuccinate Alpha-ketoglutarate SuccinyL-CoA SuccinaTe Fumarate Malate
· SilLy and sTupid used to differentiate succinyL and succinaTe 

Type 1 glycogen storage disease
Type 1 = one (Von), ie Von Giereke's disease 

Essential amino acids
PVT. TIM HALL: Phe Val Thr Trp Ile Met His Arg Leu Lys
· Pvt. is short for Private in the military.
· Arg and His are considered semiessential.
· Alternatively: "MATT VIL PHLy". 

Citric acid cycle compounds
"Can I Ask Sharon Stone For My Orgasm?":
Citrate Isocitrate Alpha-Ketoglutarate Succinyl CoA Succinate Fumerate Maleate Oxaloacetate 

Golgi complex: functions
"Golgi Distributes A SPAM": 

Distributes proteins and lipids from ER
Add mannose onto specific lysosome proteins
Sulfation of sugars and slected tyrosine
Proteoglycan assembly
Add O-oligosugars to serine and threnonine
Modify N-ologosugars on asparagine 

Pyruvate: products of complete oxidation
"4 Naked Fun 3 Coeds + 1 Guy":
· Complete oxidation of pyruvate yields:

Catabolism steps of branched chain amino acids
"Truck hit the Ox to Death":
Oxidative decarboxylation

Niacin deficiency: signs and symptoms
The famous 4 D's:
Diarrhoea Dermatitis Dementia Death (if untreated) 

Creatine phosphate: amino acid precursors
"Nice GAMs!": Glycine Arginine Methionine
· Gam is slang for a person's leg, especiallay an attractive female's leg: "Nice gams = nice legs!"
· Creatine phosphate is a muscle energy store, and spontaneously converts to creatinine which is excreted in the urine in direct proportion to muscle mass: clinically useful, such as in MS Dx.

Enzymes: classification
"Over The HILL":
· Enzymes get reaction over the hill. 

Insulin: function
INsulIN stimulates 2 things to go  IN 2 cells: Potassium and Glucose. 

Collagen concisely covered
C-terminal propeptide (procollagen)/ Covalent Cross links/ C vitamin/ Connective tissue/ Cartilage/ Chondroblasts/ Copper Cofactor (Covalent Cross linking)
Outside the cell is where collagen normally functions/ Osteoblasts/ Osteogenesis imperfecta
Lysyl hydroxylase/ Lysyl oxidase (oxidatively deaminates lysyl and hydroxylysyl residues to form collagen cross links, last biosynthesis step)
Long triple helical fibers/ Ligaments
Alpha chains/ Attached by H bonds form triple helix/ Ascorbate for hydroxylation of lysyl and prolyl residues of pro-Alpha chains (postranslational modification)
Gly in every third position/ Glycosylation of hydroxyl group of hydroxylysine with Glucose and Galactose; GOlgi allows procollagen to GO outside of cell
Extracellular matrix/ Eye (cornea, sclera)/ Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
N-terminal propeptide (procollagen)/ Nonhelical terminal extensions
· Note: Procollagen LEAVEs the cell to be cLEAVEd by procollagen peptidases 

Essential amino acids
"PVT. TIM HALL always argues, never tires":
Phe Val Thr Trp Ile Met His Arg Lue Lys
· Always argues: the A is for Arg, not Asp.
· 'Never tires': T is not Tyr, but is both Thr and Trp. 

Hypervitaminosis A: signs and symptoms
"Increased Vitamin A makes you HARD":
Headache/ Hepatomegaly
Anorexia/ Alopecia
Really painful bones
Dry skin/ Drowsiness 

Heme synthesis: amino acid precursors to basic unit of porphyrins, heme (pyrrole ring)
"Dracula wants to Suck a Co-ed's blood [think heme] with his Glystening teeth!":
Succinyl CoA and Glycine are precursor amino acids to pyrrole rings, which is the basic unit of porphyrins and heme.
Enzymes: competitive inhibitors
"Competition is hard because we have to travel more kilometers (Km) with the same velocity":
With competitive inhibitors, velocity remains same but Km increases
Phosphorylation cascade: action during low glucose
"In the Phasted State, Phosphorylate":
The phosphorylation cascade becomes active when blood glucose is low.